The Greek genocide (Greek: Γενοκτονία των Ελλήνων, Genoktonia ton Ellinon), including the Pontic genocide, was the systematic killing of the Christian Ottoman Greek population of Anatolia which was carried out during World War I and its aftermath (1914–1922) on the basis of their religion and ethnicity. It was instigated by the government of the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish national movement against the indigenous Greek population of the Empire and included massacres, forced conversion to Islam, forced deportations involving death marches[where?], expulsions, summary execution, and the destruction of Eastern Orthodox cultural, historical, and religious monuments. Several hundred thousand Ottoman Greeks died during this period. Most of the refugees and survivors fled to Greece (adding over a quarter to the prior population of Greece). Some, especially those in Eastern provinces, took refuge in the neighbouring Russian Empire.

By late 1922, most of the Greeks of Asia Minor had either fled or had been killed. Those remaining were transferred to Greece under the terms of the later 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which formalized the exodus and barred the return of the refugees. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Armenians, and some scholars and organizations have recognized these events as part of the same genocidal policy.

The Allies of World War I condemned the Ottoman government–sponsored massacres. In 2007, the International Association of Genocide Scholars passed a resolution recognising the Ottoman campaign against its Christian minorities, including the Greeks, as genocide. Some other organisations have also passed resolutions recognising the Ottoman campaign against these Christian minorities as genocide, as have the national legislatures of Greece, Cyprus, the United States, Sweden, Armenia, the Netherlands, Germany, Austria and the Czech Republic.

Many victims

The question of the number of victims of persecution during the decade that lasted until the Asia Minor Catastrophe concerns scholars and activists seeking the recognition of the events as genocide and is related to the question of the multitude of Greeks living in Asia Minor at the beginning of World War II. In the case of Pontus, the scholar and refugee Georgios Valavanis himself established in 1925 the number of 353 thousand victims, which was then reproduced by the activists of the Pontian genocide, as a result of which it was officially accepted and repeated in all relevant commemorative ceremonies. Political scientist Rudolf Rammel estimates that it cost the lives of approximately 326,000-382,000 Greeks. The number of 350,000 dead in the Pontus during the period of the Armenian Genocide, 1915-1923, is repeated by the genocide scholars Samuel Totten and Paul Bartrop. As the journalist Tassos Costopoulos proved, however, this number of Valavanis came with the arbitrary addition of 50,000 to the number of 303,238 displaced mentioned in a 1922 pamphlet, who were presented not as displaced but as exterminated. Costopoulos estimates that about 100-150,000 were exterminated in the period 1912-1924 in Pontos.

Global recognition

On February 24, 1994, the Greek Parliament unanimously voted to declare May 19 a “Day of Remembrance for the Greek Genocide in Asia Minor,” the day Mustafa Kemal landed in Samsun. Also in 1998, Parliament unanimously voted to declare “September 14th as a day of national remembrance of the genocide of the Greeks of Asia Minor by the Turkish State.”

In December 2007, the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) officially recognized the Greek genocide, along with the Assyrian genocide, and issued the following resolution:

"CONSIDERING that the denial of a genocide is universally recognized as the final stage of genocide, ensuring impunity for the perpetrators of genocide, and well-prepared the ground for future genocides,
CONSIDERING that the Ottoman genocide against the minority populations during and after the First World War is usually presented as genocide against the Armenians only, with little recognition of the qualitatively similar genocides against other Christian minorities,
DECIDES that it is the belief of the International Union of Genocide Scholars that the Ottoman campaign against the Christian minorities of the empire, between 1914 and 1923, constituted genocide against the Armenians, Assyrians, Pontians and Greeks.
"THE UNION DECIDES to ask the Turkish Government to recognize the genocides against these populations, to formally apologize, and to take appropriate and important steps towards restoration (non-repetition)."

Commemorative plaque of the Pontian Brotherhood of South Australia for the exterminated Pontians in Adelaide, Australia.

The Pontian genocide is officially recognized as such by four states, Greece by law of 1994 (N. 2193/1994), Sweden by a vote in the Swedish parliament on March 11, 2010, Armenia by March 2015, along with the genocide of the Assyrians and the Netherlands, together with the genocide of the Armenians and Assyrians, on April 9, 2015.

Turkey does not acknowledge that there was genocide and attributes the deaths to war losses, plague and disease and does not admit that there was genocide. Most modern Turks are partially or completely ignorant of these events. However, Turkish historians have publicly described the events as genocide.

Links: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_genocide

Author (s): info-scanner

Let’s go with a new short film, in this case “The Black Hole” by Philip Sansom and Olly Williams, an amazing story published in 2008 and although the name may suggest something else, they are portals. One night, a sleep-deprived office worker copies a “black hole.” Suddenly, the possibilities seem endless and he is finally trapped in his greed.

For fans of short films, check out the Future Shorts channel, which has been publishing short films from around the world (over 40 countries) to an audience of over half a million people since 2004.

Watch it!!

Denmark is one of the first countries in Europe to implement such a system and the government said it should remain in place until the entire adult population has had access to the vaccine which should be before the end of the summer.

It cannot however be used for travel although the government hopes it will eventually be used that way. The European Commission is working on the launch of a digital “green certificate” to travel freely in the EU again.

Actually, Denmark launched a COVID-19 “passport” , that will help to allow non-essential businesses to reopen to customers.

WHAT IS CORONA PASS

The “coronapas” is available via a secure application or in paper format to people who have either been fully vaccinated, have tested positive for COVID-19 two to 12 weeks previously or negative over the previous 72 hours.

HOW WILL THE PASSES WORK

Key to the EU’s digital certificate is a QR code – a machine-readable graphic code made up of black and white squares – that contains personal data and the EU’s Commission says it will be safe and secure. It is working with the World Health Organization to ensure the certificate is recognised beyond Europe.

The 27 member states also want to include non-EU countries such as Norway, Iceland and Switzerland, with officials saying earlier this week that vaccinated travellers from the US may also be able to visit Europe this summer.

So in Denmark, the Businesses that allow customers in without a valid “coronapas” will be fined €400 and up to €6,000 for repeat offences while clients will be fined €330, the Ministry of Justice has warned.

Some retailers are unhappy about the coercive measure.

“It is an unreasonable responsibility to impose (this control) on a small trader. It would have been much better if, for example, the police made inspection visits, like train inspectors,” said Jakob Brandt, head of the SMVdanmark federation of small and medium sized businesses, in an interview with the daily Politiken.

The “Men in Black” — who regularly protest against restrictions imposed to curb the spread of the deadly virus — have called for a protest against the “coronapas” and mass testing programme on Saturday.

“The Corona passport and the mass surveillance and registration of Danes that we put up with testify to a society based on distrust in citizens,” the group said in a Facebook post

Gyms, theatres and cinemas on Thursday welcomed Danes back thanks to a new round of Covid-19 restriction easing and a reliance on a “corona pass”.

Armed with the pass people in Denmark can already visit restaurants, museums or the hairdresser.

Now the new certificate — confirming that they have either tested negative in the past 72 hours, been vaccinated, or recently recovered from Covid-19 — will also give them access to other places that have been off limits due to the pandemic.

“I don’t mind showing the corona pass at all. I think it’s very good, you feel safe while everything is reopening,” 22-year-old student Ottilia, told AFP as she stopped by to buy tickets for an upcoming show at the Falkoner cinema in central Copenhagen.

“I’m very excited, I have missed going to the cinema. I’m looking forward to seeing a movie on a big screen again,” project manager Stina, who had arrived with a group of few friends to watch a new Danish movie, said.

Launched in early March, as zoos reopened, the use of the pass has been a requirement for each new stage of Denmark’s reopening.

“It’s a major success because it has combined the reopening of the economy and has boosted testing,” Lars Ramme, head of tourism at the Danish Chamber of Commerce, said.

Bars, cafes and restaurants have been using it since April 21.

“I honestly think that after four, five months of lockdown, at least in Copenhagen, people will do anything to go and grab a beer and get some food,” Mikkel Bjergso, founder of micro-brewery Mikkeler.

It currently allows people to enter certain businesses — including hairdressers, beauty salons and driving schools — with the aim to gradually reopen the economy by the end of May.

Some 7 per cent of Denmark’s 5.8 million inhabitants have been fully vaccinated and a total of 13.3 per cent have received at least one dose.

Vaccinations in the country have slowed down in recent weeks after it suspended the use of the jab developed by AstraZeneca over concerns about rare but serious blood clot events in vaccinated people. The use of the vaccine remains suspended pending further assessments of its side effects.

CYPRUS OF GOVERNMENT

The requirement of a special pass to enter malls, churches and restaurants is a temporary one to ensure a smooth transition into the next phase of less restrictive measures, Health Minister Constantinos Ioannou said on Thursday.

The minister said that the return “to more normal conditions” must be done safely and carefully. For this reason, he said, not all restrictions can be completely removed at this stage, but they are adapting to the data of the current period.

“The de-escalation of measures will be gradual and depending on the epidemiological picture as it evolves,” he added.

He added that to ensure more safety during people’s presence in specific areas where crowds gather such as shopping malls, restaurants, churches, along with the use of a mask and the observance of other personal protection measures, it was decided that people need to:

To have been vaccinated with at least the first dose at least three weeks earlier or to have been infected by Covid-19 in the past six months

If one of the two above measures does not apply, and as a temporary solution and until vaccination coverage progresses further people aged over 12 should present a negative PCR or rapid test, with a validity of 72 hours, he said.

“This measure is temporary and will be applied for a transitional period in order to ensure that our travels and social contacts are made as safe as possible for our health and for public health,” Ioannou said. The goal, he said, is to achieve the desired immunity through vaccinations.

He also clarified that the responsibility for the control of possession of proof is not the responsibility of the businesses but of police and officials of competent ministries and departments depending on their areas of responsibility.

The cabinet on Wednesday night decided, from Monday, to lift the obligation of sending an SMS before going out, to reopen most closed businesses and to introduce a so-called Covid pass for people to be allowed into hospitality venues, churches, gyms, shops and other places.

Ioannou said that an application will be introduced for obtaining a digital Covid pass but more information would be given by the deputy ministry for innovation. The pass was originally being referred to in ministry announcements as a ‘coronapass’. However, CoronaPass is a trademarked app developed by Microsoft and specifically refers to a digital-only system.

A digital pass is not expected to be implemented right away in Cyprus and people will likely have to present paper evidence of test, vaccine or proof of past illness when the measure starts from Monday, and until a digital version is available.

However after Denmark and Cyprus, they follow other countries such the Flemish government is considering introducing a system with a “corona pass” to give people in Flanders back some freedom from 11 July, according to Flemish Welfare Minister Wouter Beke.

Also France wants to be the first EU member country to put in place a COVID-19 travel pass, a first example of digital green pass the European Commission wants to roll out across the bloc by mid-June.

Author(s): Info-scanner

From :

https://www.euronews.com/2021/04/06/covid-19-denmark-launches-coronapas-certificate-to-reopen-economy

https://www.france24.com/en/live-news/20210506-denmark-eases-more-covid-restrictions-with-new-corona-pass

https://www.politico.eu/article/france-launch-coronavirus-travel-pass/

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-56912667